By C. Taylor

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**Extra info for A Non-Mathematical Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography [short article]**

**Sample text**

Graphs of stopping cross sections and conversion factors for energy loss calculations are given in [8]. The stopping cross section εα may also be defined as [11]: _dE7 dq dE where — is the energy loss per unit areal density (atom · c m - 2 ) . dq εα is given in eV(1015 atoms · c m " 2 ) " 1 which is approximately the energy loss for a monolayer [11]. For a pure element the conversion between (6) and (7) is obtained through = eV(ioi5 atoms · c m " 2 ) - 1 A8(E) 602 (8) where A is the atomic weight of the sample material.

Of unequal energy loss of identical particles traversing the same target under identical conditions. Straggling distributions can be considered in two ways which are closely related: (a) As the energy distribution of particles t h a t have travelled a distance x. This distribution will affect profile determinations by backscattering and will be denoted by f(W) dW. (b) As the p a t h length distribution of particles whose energy has been reduced from an initial value E0 to a given value Ev this distribution is more useful in resonant nuclear reactions.

2). Selective absorbers are often used in order to eliminate specific radiations, the absorption being calculated using Lambert's Jaw I = 54 I0e-"* where μ is the mass absorption coefficient [6] and x the absorber thickness in g · cm - 2 . Absorption is exceptionally large for X-rays whose energy is just above the absorption edges of the elements present in the absorber. A tabulation of K X-ray energies and the corresponding selective absorbers is given in Table II. The use of selective absorbers is further illustrated in Fig.

### A Non-Mathematical Introduction to X-Ray Crystallography [short article] by C. Taylor

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