By Joachim W. Fluhr, Peter Elsner, Enzo Berardesca, Howard I. Maibach
Bioengineering of the surface, or extra exactly the biophysical evaluation of dermis body structure, is relocating quickly from a descriptive method of a deeper figuring out of biophysical and biochemical methods. This moment variation of the preferred textual content Bioengineering of the surface: Water and Stratum Corneum displays the development within the box, concentrating on the dramatically greater figuring out of pores and skin body structure. particularly, it studies the shift in our figuring out of the stratum corneum from an inert surrounding sheet to a biologically lively compartment.
The stratum corneum is the interface among the occasionally harsh surroundings and the interior turmoil of the human physique. in line with loads of fresh courses, this ebook explains the mechanisms serious about stratum corneum barrier functionality and hydration. It displays 10 years of growth not just of the non-invasive biophysical evaluation of dermis body structure parameter, but additionally of the perfection of the to be had units. It brings all learn on epidermal water and transepidermal water loss in overall healthiness and sickness updated with the revision of current chapters in addition to additional chapters from new individuals on hydration and itching. This version additionally comprises new guidance at the standardization of measurements.
Bioengineering of the outside will improve communique in the examine neighborhood and may be priceless for scientists within the dermis bioengineering box via offering tools that provide trustworthy and reproducible ways for product trying out within the pharmaceutical and beauty industries, in addition to for easy examine
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Extra resources for Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum, 2nd Edition
In hair, these protofibrils contain two α-helices, demonstrated by Pauling in 1951. Questions are now being raised as to the presence of these helices in the SC, which does not produce the X-ray diffraction pattern characteristic of α-keratin. , the keratin in the SC would be an intermediate between β-keratin and that of feathers . The constituents of these two “tissues” also present similarities and differences. Without going into too much detail, one of the major differences is the fact that lipids represent about 10 to 15% of the mass of the SC but only 2% of hair.
The succeeding enzymatic processes of nonoxidative histidine deamination have recently been identified as contributing to SC acidification [20–22]. The key enzyme in this process is the histidine-ammonia-lyase (histidase) It is found primarily in the liver and the skin [21,23–27]; in the skin, it is almost entirely located in the SC and functions optimally at a neutral pH [22,24–26]. The main product of the histidine deamination is the trans-urocanic acid (tUCA), which was shown to play an important role not only in skin hydration but also in several non-pH-dependent skin protective functions.
Circadian Rhythm Recent studies also report a circadian rhythm of skin surface pH in forearm, shin, axillae, and facial regions [60–62]. Yosipovitch et al. reported SC pH maxima between 2:00 and 4:00 PM, with minimal values around 8:00 PM . Le Fur et al. found the lowest values to be around 4:00 AM, with a plateau occurring during the daytime . 23) . Again, these data indicate the influence of hormones underlying a circadian cycle like glucocorticosteroids. Yosipovitch et al. 4 pH units for both men and women .
Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum, 2nd Edition by Joachim W. Fluhr, Peter Elsner, Enzo Berardesca, Howard I. Maibach