By P. Catherine Clegg
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Extra resources for Introduction to Mechanisms of Hormone Action
I II /CH (CH FIG. 19. The structure of adenosine-3',5'-phosphate. Cyclic adenosine -3',5'-phosphate (3,5-AMP) like the enzyme phosphorylase, is in a constant state of flux dependent upon rates of production and destruction of the nucleotide. The nucleotide is produced in the presence of various factors including ATP, the enzyme cyclase and magnesium ions. It is at this level that adrenaline acts. Adrenaline stimulates the rate of synthesis of cyclic adenosine -3',5'-phosphate (3,5-AMP) which activates Mechanisms of Hormone Action 46 phosphoryl kinase which in turn activates phosphorylase (Fig.
In muscle cells there is an increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis. All of these effects of insulin contribute to the fall in the concentration of circulating glucose, but it is by no means clear that these various actions of insulin are due to similar mechanisms or occur at similar loci in liver, muscle and fat cells. In addition to these various effects on the metabolism of carbohydrate, insulin is also intimately involved in protein meta bolism and thus on growth. , muscle to the hormone results in an increase in the rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein molecules.
Experimental Evidence for the Site of Action of Insulin. The amount of glucose in muscle cells and the effect of insulin. As early as 1939 a worker called Lundsgaard obtained experi mental results which led him to the conclusion that insulin influences the mechanisms which transfer glucose from the extracellular fluid into the interior of the cell. These studies were made with animals from which the abdominal viscera including the pancreas had been removed. These animals were thus unable to secrete insulin, unable to store or generate glucose because they had no fiver, and since they had no kidneys could not excrete administered glucose.
Introduction to Mechanisms of Hormone Action by P. Catherine Clegg